Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometers (10-9 meters). More specifically, nanorobotics refers to the still largely hypothetical nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobots. Nanorobots would be typically devices ranging in size from 0.1-10 micrometersthey could work at atomic, molecular and cellular level to perform work Nanorobots are to likely be constructed of carbon atoms, generally in diamond structure because of inert properties and strength,glucose (or) natural body sugars and oxygen might be source at propulsion,Nanorobots will respond to acoustic signals.
It is the Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome caused by HIV,AIDS human viral disease ravages the immune system, the major issue of AIDS is that it leaves the infected person vulnerable to opportunistic infection.HIV principally attacks CD4 T-cells,as result body ability to resist viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoal and other immunity of the body is weakened. HIV can transmit from one body to the other through
Mother to child during birth
Aids is a condition where as body's specific defense system no longer works properly. There is a focused loss over time of immune cell function. As result loss of ability of body to light infection Our immune system comprises of two types of cells
B-cells responsible for production of antibodies. The principal functions of B cells are to make antibodies against antigens, perform the role of Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) and eventually develop into memory B cells after activation by antigen interaction. B cells are an essential component of the adaptive immune system.
T-cells are two types, either for helping B-cells or for killing damaged cells.
Cytotoxic T-cells. (Th1)
For B-cell to do its job requires helper Th2 cell,for cytotoxic T-cell it require Th1 helper T-cell,when foreign substance enters both B&T cells responds,if foreign agent enters a cell & remain stayed cytotoxic T-cells are activated & kills that agent.
HIV aims at (Th1&Th2) elimination
OPERATION OF HIV
Proteins are part of the envelope of HIV, a protein named GP120 recognizes a protein on helper T-cells named CD4,the CD4 protein is a normal part of helper T-cells,
HIV infects mainly B&T-cells, Without Immune responses from T-cells, B-cells cannot make antibodies to fight HIV cells, This cycle increases substantial loss of helper T-cells .
Our body responds through protection of more T-cells, HIV viruses infects these target and eliminate them too.More T-cells produce more infected HIV cells this fight continuous up to inability to produce T-cell.
REASONS FOR APPLYING NANOTECH TO BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM
Most animal cells are 10,000-20,000 nm in dia.Nanoscale devices are less than 100nm in size
Nanodevices enters cells & organelles and easily interact with proteins and DNA, it can easily monitor the cells &its behavior inside body, it could possible to run many diagnostic tests as well so implementing Nano robots to diagnose & treatment of highly fatal diseases like AIDS will be more precise and the fatality of such diseases can be reduced.
AIDS is not a killer disease rather destroyer of immune system, the HIV attack WBC by converting into HIV, all WBC are converted into HIV, thus immune system fails. Our idea is to turn AIDS Affected WBC to original WBC using Nanorobots. Nanorobots should be very much fast than HIV works of WBC.
Construction of Nanorobots involves atom to atom or molecule by molecule methods ,size
Of Nanorobots will be typically 0.5 to 3 microns large with 1 to 100 nm parts. Three micron is appear limit of any nanorobot.
It will be of diamond shape vacuum environment made of carbon derivatives into which
matters can not enter unless need for analysis,it will be subjected to various chemical liquid in our body. The Nanorobots Consists of three main parts like
· DNA sensor,
· RNA converter & the power system.
The purpose of DNA sensor is to identify the HIV infected cell.
RNA converter is used to change the RNA of the HIV.
CPU controls all the activities.
Power system provides necessary energy for the working of the Nanorobots
DNA sensor is cantilever type
In one arm actual sample is placed in second arm sample of WBC is placed.
If sample differ the sensor identify.
It could metabolized local glucose & oxygen for energy.
Another possibility external supplied acoustic power.
It is essential for us to monitor the work of Nanorobots inside our body, one of a way to communicate is to send message into our body in acoustic messaging, a device similar to ultra sound probe would be employed for the encoding and decoding of the messages.
REQUIREMENTS OF NANOROBOTS
Ø It should be very small so that the blood capillary flow is not affected.
Ø It should not be affected by the WBC.
Ø It should convert the infected WBC into the original WBC in a very faster manner.
Ø It should be made of cheaper rates, so that the patient can afford it easily.
Ø The nanorobots do not generate any harmful activities there is no side effect.
Ø It operates at specific site only.
Ø The initial cost of development is only high but the manufacturing by batch processing reduces the cost.
Ø The nanorobot should be very accurate, otherwise harmful effects may occur.
Ø The initial design cost is very high.
Ø The design of this nanorobot is a very complicated one.
Ø These are just theoretical justifications.
Ø This paper gives introduction to Nanorobotics & important.
Ø This is the NanoERA and we could expect future improvement such as aids treatment.